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10th Biennial International Conference on
Music in Nineteenth-Century Britain
8th-10th July 2015 Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, Glasgow 0
Conference Committee Co-Chairs: Dr Stephen Broad (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland) and Professor Rachel Cowgill (University of Huddersfield) Dr George Biddlecombe (Royal Academy of Music) Professor Dorothy De Val (York University, Canada) Dr Karen McAulay (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland) Professor Charles E. McGuire (Oberlin Conservatory of Music) Dr Paul Watt (Monash University, Australia; Editor, RMA Research Chronicle)
Organising Committee Eilidh Hughes Amy-Beth Jordan Marius Jugariu Jennifer Knotts (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland)
We gratefully acknowledge the generous support of:
Stay connected during the conference: If you want to tweet or blog your thoughts and experiences during or after the conference, we will be using the hashtag #MNCBConf
Cover image from the Enderby Jackson Collection of 19th century brass band competitions, provided by the archives at the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland. 1
Contents Welcome from the Principal ....................................................................................... 2 Welcome from the Conference co-chairs ................................................................... 3 Keynote Speakers ...................................................................................................... 4 Programme - Wednesday 8 July ................................................................................ 5 Programme - Thursday 9 July .................................................................................... 8 Programme - Friday 10 July ..................................................................................... 12 Conference Abstracts (in alphabetical order) ........................................................... 15 Social Events ........................................................................................................... 43 General Information ................................................................................................. 44 Venue Map ............................................................................................................... 46 Notes ........................................................................................................................ 47
Welcome from the Principal It is my great pleasure to welcome you to Glasgow and to the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland for this 10th Biennial International Conference on Music in NineteenthCentury Britain.
The programme for the next three days is packed with papers and presentations that will stimulate and entertain – and I cannot imagine a more fitting setting for this gathering of scholars than Glasgow. The former ‘Second City of the Empire’ is one of the world’s great nineteenth-century cities and, despite the ravages of the twentieth century, retains much of the superb Victorian architecture, public spaces and civic art collections that contribute so much to the city’s – and the nation’s – sense of itself. And it is particularly appropriate that we should be hosting the conference at the Royal Conservatoire, which is itself a product of nineteenth-century civic pride and social conscience. The original mission of the Glasgow Athenaeum, as it was then called, was ‘to use every means … to aid in the dissemination of a knowledge of Science and Art, by the agency of which a nation is enriched and ennobled’. Reflecting the reforming attitudes of the founders, the principal speaker at our inaugural event in December 1847 was none other than Charles Dickens.
Today, though the language of that mission sounds antique, the underlying message is one that we still subscribe to: we are proud of our role as Scotland’s national conservatoire, and delighted to welcome you to our home here in Glasgow. Enjoy the conference.
Professor Jeffrey Sharkey Principal Royal Conservatoire of Scotland
Welcome from the Conference co-chairs Welcome to Glasgow for the 10th Biennial International Conference on Music in Nineteenth-Century Britain. It's hard to believe that it's almost 20 years since Bennett Zon hosted the first MNCB conference at the University of Hull in 1997. Just a quick look at the excellent papers lined up this year shows how this field has flourished and matured, and you can now browse the abstracts of papers presented over the years at the conference website, www.mncb.org.uk.
We are delighted the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland is our host this year, not least because it means the conference will have been held in each of the four nations of the British Isles. Given the striking political changes that have and continue to affect and redefine the Union, it's a particularly interesting time for the conference to be coming to Scotland.
We hope you have an excellent conference and take the opportunity to join us for the receptions, kindly sponsored by Ashgate and Boydell & Brewer, and for the Ceilidh and Conference Dinner at two of Glasgow's finest historic social venues.
We are grateful to the Royal Musical Association for supporting the conference, and to all of the delegates and chairs, our three excellent keynote speakers, the programme committee, and the RCS conference team who have done such a superb job in bringing the event together. If you have any queries at any point in the conference, then please don't hesitate to ask the team. And if you've enjoyed your time at MNCB 2015, then you might like to note that the next conference, in 2017, will be hosted by Paul Rodmell at the University of Birmingham.
With Best Wishes
Stephen Broad and Rachel Cowgill
Keynote Speakers Simon McVeigh is Professor of Music at Goldsmiths, University of London. He has published widely on British musical life and instrumental music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, including Concert Life in London from Mozart to Haydn and The Italian Solo Concerto 1700-1760. His current research is focussed on London concert life from 1880 to 1914: a major article on the early years of the London Symphony Orchestra appeared in JRMA in 2013, and he is now concentrating on recital culture during this period. He is also a contributor to the collaborative project InConcert, exploring new approaches towards digital archives, performance datasets and concert programmes.
Kirsteen McCue is Senior Lecturer in Scottish Literature and Co-Director of the Centre for Robert Burns Studies at the University of Glasgow, where she has been on the staff since 2002. Prior to this she freelanced with the BBC and Edinburgh International Festival and, from 1994 to 1998, was General Manager of the Scottish Music Information Centre (now the Scottish Music Centre). She has published widely on Romantic song culture, has just completed two editions of the songs of James Hogg for the Collected Works of James Hogg for Edinburgh University Press, and is currently completing, with Dr Pam Perkins, an edition of Anne Grant’s Letters from the Mountains (1806) for Pickering & Chatto. She is editing Burns’s songs for George Thomson for the new Oxford edition of The Works of Robert Burns (due 2018).
John Wallace grew up in the Brass Band tradition in Scotland, and went on to become Principal Trumpet with the Philharmonia Orchestra after periods with the Royal Philharmonic and London Symphony Orchestras as Assistant Principal Trumpet. In 2002 he returned to Scotland to become Principal of the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, a multidisciplinary institution of Drama, Dance, Production, Screen and Music. He left this position in September 2014 to resume his musical career, reforming his brass ensemble, the New Wallace Collection, and composing new music for brass. During his first career as a trumpet player, John played concertos with many conductors including Simon Rattle, Andrew Davis, Riccardo Muti, Guiseppe Sinopoli, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Leonard Slatkin, and premiered new works by Malcolm Arnold, Peter Maxwell Davies, Harrison Birtwistle, James Macmillan, Tim Souster, Robert Saxton, Mark Antony Turnage, HK Gruber, Dominic Muldeowney, and Robert Saxton, amongst many others. With Trevor Herbert he co-edited the Cambridge University Press Companion to Brass Instruments and wrote, with Alexander McGrattan, a history of The Trumpet, published in 2012 by Yale University Press.
Programme - Wednesday 8 July 09.00
Registration Venue: AGOS Studio Foyer (Tea and Coffee will be served)
Welcome & Notices Venue: AGOS Studio
Session 1: Parallel Session Session 1a: The Loder Family: Three Musical Careers Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Julian Rushton (University of Leeds)
Kate Loder (1825–1904), Performer, Teacher, Composer: ‘A Powerful Influence on the Art of her Time’ Therese Ellsworth (Washington DC) The Travels and Travails in Australia of George Loder (1816– 1868) Jula Szuster (Elder Conservatorium, University of Adelaide) Revisiting Edward Loder’s The Night Dancers Paul Rodmell (University of Birmingham) Aspiring to Greatness Against All the Odds: Edward James Loder (1809–1865) Nicholas Temperley (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Session 1b: Music, Cultural Identity, and the Four Nations 1 Venue: AGOS Room 13 Chair: Bennett Zon (University of Durham)
Sir Frederick Bridge and the Methodist Hymn Book (1904) Martin V. Clarke (Open University) Royal Welsh Choirs: Singing for the Royalty in the Long Nineteenth Century Rachelle Barlow (Cardiff University) Writing Spiritual and Cultural Identity through Musical Experience: The Case of the Waddington Sisters Helen Barlow (Open University)
Victorian Legacies, Historiographical Challenges: The Violin Class in the Ballykinlar Internment Camp during the Anglo-Irish War Christina Bashford (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Lunch & Networking Venue: AGOS Studio Foyer
Session 2: Parallel Session Session 2a: Music, Theory, and the Body Venue: AGOS Room 13 Chair: George Kennaway (University of Hull)
The Legacy of the ‘Coup de glotte’: The Case of John Braham (1774–1856) and Manuel Garcia II (1805–1906) Brianna E. Robertson-Kirkland (University of Glasgow) Cognition in Scottish Common Sense Music Theory, 1770–1801 Carmel Raz (Yale University) Victorian Recapitulationism and the Musical Hand Signs of Tonic Sol-fa Bennett Zon (University of Durham) Mobilizing to Song: School Music Education and the Masculinization of the Victorian Working-Class Child Erin Johnson-Hill (Yale University)
Session 2b: At the Keyboard Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Therese Ellsworth (Washington, DC)
Appointing an Inventor of the Nocturne Majella Boland (University College Dublin) Clementi and the Completion of a Slur Beth Pei-Fen Chen (independent scholar and pianist) ‘Can Anyone tell us where the Lady Organ Recitalist is to be Found?’: The Legacy of the London Organ School Judith Barger (independent scholar) From Wesley to Best: English Organ Composition in the Early Victorian Era Peter Horton (Royal College of Music)
Coffee Break Venue: AGOS Studio Foyer
Keynote Lecture - Dr Kirsteen McCue (University of Glasgow) Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Rachel Cowgill (University of Huddersfield) ‘Expositing, illustrating and teaching the ballad poetry of their native land’: Scots songs and singers in early nineteenth-century Britain.
Delegate Reception – Sponsored by Ashgate Publishers Venue: AGOS Studio Foyer
Delegate Ceilidh Venue: Sloans Glasgow Please see page 45 for information & directions.
Programme - Thursday 9 July 10.00
Session 3: Parallel Session Session 3a: Fin-de-siècle British Musical Culture: NABMSAsponsored panel Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Christina Bashford
‘The Thing is not a Picture of Italy’: Finding the Pastoral in Elgar’s In the South Eric Saylor (Drake University) ‘A Revolt of Provinces Against the Centre’: Provincialism, Identity, and Art Music in Edinburgh, 1900–1917 Jennifer Oates (Queens College, City University of New York) Dry Irish Dances? An Examination of the Stanford and Grainger Four Irish Dances Adèle Commins (Dundalk Institute of Technology) ‘It’s a Long Way to Tipperary …’ and Tennessee: Edwardian Ladies, Dominion Tommies, and Wartime Spaces of Healing in England, 1914–1918 Michelle Meinhart (Martin Methodist College, Tennessee)
Session 3b: Music, Cultural Identity, and the Four Nations 2 Venue: AGOS Room 13 Chair: Karen McAulay
‘Heaven Blesses George’s Throne’: Handel Subverted, or Celebrating the Protestant Succession in Manchester’s Gentlemen’s Concerts Geoff Thomason (Royal Northern College of Music) ‘During a Conversation we had about English National Songs’: Louis Spohr’s Variations on Irish Melodies in Context Karl Traugott Goldbach (Spohr Museum, Kassel) London Variation Sets and Building the Canon of Scottish Folksong Sarah Clemmens Waltz (University of the Pacific) Lecture-Recital: The Four Scottish Dances and Melodies, Op. 15, of Tobias Matthay Stephen Siek (Wittenberg University)
Lunch & Networking During this lunch hour, the NABMSA Committee for Early-Career Scholars will meet in the Conference Room. The Committee is interested in developing services to assist scholars who study British music and conduct research in both the UK and the USA, and who are interested in learning more about the differing cultures of academic careers in the US and the UK. Delegates who are interested in discussing these topics are welcome to bring in their lunch and join us. Maximum capacity is 60 people.
Session 4: Parallel Session Session 4a: Music and Literature/Setting Tennyson Venue: AGOS Room 13 Chair: Benedict Taylor
‘Not of Heroic Build’: The Literate Glee Christopher Price (Canterbury Christ Church University) The Musical Reception of Cervantes in English Music, 1800– 1900 Juan José Pastor Comin (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain) Tennyson’s and Sullivan’s Song Cycle, The Windows Kenneth DeLong (University of Calgary) Songs from the Published Writings of Alfred Tennyson: The Case of Franz Liszt’s Only English-Language Song Malgorzata Gamrat (University of Warsaw)
Session 4b: Networks, Entrepreneurship, and Empire 1 Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Kerry Murphy
Musical Entrepreneurship in Early Victorian Manchester Rachel Johnson (Royal Northern College of Music) Musical Scots Abroad: The Role of the ‘Invisible’ Scot in England’s Mid-Victorian Piano Industry Marie Kent (London Metropolitan University) Demand and Supply: Wind Instruments for Britain and the Empire Jocelyn Howell (City University London and the Horniman Museum) Brass Instruments for Victorian Domestic Music Arnold Myers (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland) 9
Coffee Break Venue: AGOS Studio Foyer
Session 5: Parallel Session Session 5a: Bands in Scotland Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Rachel Cowgill
The House Band of the Marquis of Breadalbane c.1804–60 Lance Whitehead (independent scholar) Musical Education and Ensemble Performance on Industrial Training Ships during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century Alexander McGrattan (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland)
Session 5b: Culture and Concert Life Venue: AGOS Room 13 Chair: Stephen Broad
‘A Daughter of the Gods, Divinely Tall’: Gender and Families in the Programme Notes on Beethoven at the Crystal Palace Saturday Concerts Bruno Bower (Royal College of Music) The ‘Historical Concert’ according to Friedrich Niecks (1845– 1924) Fiona M. Donaldson (University of Edinburgh) The Sacred Sounds of Watering Places: Organ Recitals at Victorian Aquariums Makiko Hayasaka (University of Bristol)
Session 5c: Music and Warfare Venue: AGOS Room 11 Chair: Michelle Meinhart
Bugle Blasts in the Transvaal: Ladysmith, Pretoria, and Mafeking in Sheet Music Lewis Foreman (University of Birmingham) Bax’s In Memoriam: Memory, Martyrdom, and Modalities of Irishness Aidan J. Thomson (Queen’s University, Belfast)
Delegate Reception – Sponsored by Boydell & Brewer Publishers Venue: AGOS Studio Foyer
Keynote Lecture - Professor Simon McVeigh (Goldsmiths, University of London) Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Christina Bashford ‘Zoom in, Zoom out: Perspectives on British Musical Culture in the long Nineteenth Century’
Delegate Dinner Hutchesons Bar & Brasserie Please Note: This dinner is an optional extra at a cost of £25 per delegate. See page 45 for information & directions.
Programme - Friday 10 July 10.00
Keynote Lecture - Professor John Wallace (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland) Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Stephen Broad Brass Idiom in the Long Nineteenth Century – neglected, undervalued and still too recent to be fully appreciated? Musically illustrated by Antony George, John Miller, Aaron Shorr and John Wallace on instruments from the RCS Webb Collection
Coffee Break Venue: AGOS Foyer
Session 6: Parallel Session Session 6a: Transatlantic Currents at Mid-Century: Music in the Theatre Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Nicholas Temperley
Minstrels on the Road: The Uneasy Embrace of US Popular Culture in 1860s Britain Brian C. Thompson (The Chinese University of Hong Kong) Music and Sensation on the English-Language Stage in the 1860s Michael V. Pisani (Vassar College) An Edinburgh Soprano and English-Language Opera in America and Great Britain Katherine K. Preston (The College of William and Mary)
Session 6b: Music, Universities and Canon-Building Venue: AGOS Room 13 Chair: Aidan J. Thomson
The Chamber Music Clubs of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge Ian Maxwell (University of Durham)
The Union of Graduates in Music: Protecting the Public, Promoting Professionalism Rosemary Golding (Open University) The Symphonies of Stanford and Parry – Starting Point of a British Symphonic Tradition? Dorothea Weber (University of the Arts, Berlin)
Lunch & Networking Venue: AGOS Foyer
Session 7: Parallel Session Session 7a: Networks, Entrepreneurship, and Empire 2 Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Dorothy de Val
Scottish Heritage and the Sonic Imprint of Empire: Jamaica, the USA, and South Africa Johann Buis (Wheaton College) Thomas Quinlan’s ‘All-Red’ Tours Kerry Murphy (Melbourne Conservatorium of Music, University of Melbourne) Australia’s Female Musicians: Colonial Poor Relations? Lorraine Granger-Brown (University of Melbourne)
Session 7b: Vocal Critics Venue: AGOS Room 13 Chair: George Biddlecombe
‘This Scene of Mingled Order and Confusion’: 1847 London and Jenny Lind Francesca Vella (University of Cambridge) Throats, Ears and Force-Pump Operas: ‘Sick’ Audiences and Singers in Nineteenth-Century Italian Opera Chloe Valenti (University of Cambridge) Verdi and Wagner in Early Victorian London: The Viewpoint of the Muiscal World Massimo Zicari (Scuola Universitaria di Musica-SUPSI)
Coffee Break Venue: AGOS Foyer 13
Session 8: Parallel Session Session 8a: Shades of Wagner Venue: AGOS Room 11 Chair: Simon McVeigh
Another Strand of Elgar’s Wagnerism: Community, C major, and C/Eflat Pairing Peter Atkinson (University of Birmingham) Who was the ‘English Beckmesser’? John Ling (Royal Holloway)
Session 8b: New Perspectives on Mendelssohn and Scotland Venue: AGOS Studio Chair: Sarah Clemmens Waltz
Seascape in the Mist: Lost in Mendelssohn’s Hebrides Benedict Taylor (University of Edinburgh) Mendelssohn’s Scottish Sentiments: A New Look at Music, Meaning, and Contemporary Nationalism in Mendelssohn’s ‘Scottish’ Symphony Beth Abbate (Boston Conservatory)
Session 8c: Opera and British Humour Venue: AGOS Room 13 Chair: Eric Saylor
‘The House was Kept in Continual Laughter’: Understanding Rossinian Humour in London, 1818–1830 Amalya Lehmann (University of California, Berkeley) British Identity in Utopia, Limited Jeff S. Dailey (Five Towns College)
Conference Close Venue: AGOS Studio
(in alphabetical order)
Beth Abbate (Boston Conservatory)
Mendelssohn’s Scottish Sentiments: A New Look at Music, Meaning, and Contemporary Nationalism in Mendelssohn’s ‘Scottish’ Symphony The last, ‘Allegro guerriero’ movement of Mendelssohn’s ‘Scottish’ Symphony has sparked debate about whether it was conceived programmatically, while its contrasting ‘Maestoso’ coda has often been heard as a disconnected—and stylistically Germanic—celebration of nationalism. What has not been taken into account are Mendelssohn’s musical allusions to Beethoven’s Fifth and Sixth Symphonies and their significance for the meaning of the movement. In particular, Mendelssohn uses a reference to the opening theme of the last movement of the Fifth, together with the melancholy melody conceived during his visit to the Holyrood ruins, to suggest that the contemporary Scottish cultural nationalism is a realization of the post-French Revolutionary concept of inner freedom. And an allusion to the Sixth in the coda suggests that the coda functions as a Beethovenian hymnic ending, quite connected to the movement and acting as a celebration of the new nationalism, for which the United Kingdom served as a model.
Peter Atkinson (University of Birmingham)
Another Strand of Elgar’s Wagnerism: Community, C major, and the C/Eflat Pairing Scholarly studies of Elgar’s Wagnerism have hitherto been dominated by three themes: intertextual allusion, chromatic harmony, and, above all, the influence of Parsifal. In this paper, I consider another ‘strand’ of Elgar’s Wagnerism that has been overlooked but which is no less important. Whereas the Parsifalian strand is associated with decadence, mysticism, and the keys of AFlat and D as found in Elgar’s First Symphony and The Apostles, this alternative thread, stemming instead from Die Meistersinger, is concerned with community and fellowship, the keys of C and EFlat, and, among Elgar’s oratorios, with The Kingdom rather than The Apostles. After considering how Elgar’s holidays in Bavaria in the 1890s might have shaped his sense of community, I suggest that Elgar, like the (the post-revolutionary) Wagner, idealized a romantic kind of conservative Gemeinschaft—an ideal community rooted in tradition and opposed to the values of individualism, liberalism, and materialism. I then examine a number of Elgar’s works—in particular Caractacus (1898), Cockaigne (1901), and The Kingdom (1906)—and demonstrate that he followed Wagner in consistently associating earthly communities with the key of C major and the tonal pairing of C/Eflat, suggesting a kind of intertextual associative tonality.
Judith Barger (independent scholar) (Session 2b) ‘Can Anyone tell us where the Lady Organ Recitalist is to be Found?’: The Legacy of the London Organ School In The Music Profession in Britain since the Eighteenth Century, Cyril Ehrlich notes that one of the ‘more curious features of English musical life was a proliferation of “conservatories”’ (p. 105); his non-comprehensive list includes 22 founded between 1823 and 1900. Among the many musical institutions opening their doors in nineteenth-century England, Frederick Scotson Clark’s London Organ School (LOS), established in 1865 and active at least through to 1900, is one of the least known. Using documents about Clark, advertisements for the LOS and reviews of its recitals, and recital notices and programmes of the School’s most publicized student and, later, professor, organist Emily Edroff, I weave together a fuller picture of a private school that offered practical musical instruction to students of varying abilities in an increasingly wide range of subjects and instruments but whose chief focus remained the organ and, it appears, its female performers. I then focus on Edroff, the School’s most enduring legacy, as a case study to consider the status of women organists on England’s recital stages in the last decades of the nineteenth century.
Helen Barlow (Open University)
Writing Spiritual and Cultural Identity through Musical Experience: The Case of the Waddington Sisters Frances Waddington was born in England in 1791, her sister Augusta in Wales in 1802, and both lived through the greater part of the nineteenth century. Their letters and memoirs reveal the ways in which music functions as a touchstone for their sense of identity and how they choose to present themselves, and for defining and sustaining relationships and allegiances. Frances married the Prussian diplomat Christian von Bunsen and lived variously in Rome, London, and Bonn. Music, in particular sacred music, as she writes about it to her mother in Wales, becomes a way of maintaining old emotional bonds and creating new ones, its significance gaining in intensity in the context of her husband’s project to write a new German Protestant liturgy, in which he was influenced by the Anglican liturgy and choral tradition. Augusta is better known as Lady Llanover, a woman at the heart of the Celtic Renaissance circle that was significant in protecting, promoting, and—it is often said— inventing Welsh cultural traditions. Her views on Welsh music say a great deal about the social, political, and cultural values that underpinned her conception of what it meant to be Welsh.
Rachelle Barlow (Cardiff University)
Royal Welsh Choirs: Singing for Royalty in the Long Nineteenth Century Musical performances held increasing prominence for entertaining members of the Royal Family in the long nineteenth century. Although Queen Victoria commanded a number of performances, the appearance of Welsh choirs at such occasions has often been overlooked. By contrast, this paper investigates how Welsh music, in particular, was received by the Royal Family with reference to two, distinctive female choirs both using the same name: the Royal Welsh Ladies’ Choir. The first was established in Cardiff in 1883 by Clara Novello Davies. Following its success at the Chicago World’s Fair Eisteddfod (1893), the choir was invited to perform before the Queen at Osborne House in 1894. The second choir (also from Cardiff) was formed c. 1905 by Hannah Hughes-Thomas, wife of Alderman Edward Thomas, a former mayor of the city. Utilizing Thomas’s connections, the choir performed without formal invitation for King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra at the opening of the Cardiff docks in 1907, and later for Princess Louise and the Duke of Argyll in 1909. By examining issues of repertoire, reception, and performance practices, this paper will address not only how these Welsh choirs represented themselves for a royal audience, but also how such choirs subverted the iconic reading of Welsh choral music in terms of their gender.
Christina Bashford (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Victorian Legacies, Historiographical Challenges: The Violin Class in the Ballykinlar Internment Camp during the Anglo-Irish War Music in prison camps has recently attracted musicological attention, with studies focused on World Wars I and II, but no-one has looked at the British-run camp at Ballykinlar (Ireland), where republican sympathizers were detained during the AngloIrish War (1919–21). At Ballykinlar, musical activities included classes in elementary violin, led by prisoners Martin Walton, a professional Dublin violinist, and Frank O’Higgins, folk fiddler. Walton, with permission from the British, imported cheap violins from London and gathered students. Drawing on untapped archives, I consider the social, cultural, and political function that music served in this exceedingly harsh domain. Such work, nevertheless, presents a series of historiographical challenges: (1) how to approach a topic that engenders strong humanitarian and political sensitivities; (2) how to navigate the politically charged, sometimes populist, literature on the war; (3) how to frame interpretation: are prison narratives that claim music to have functioned as consolation or resistance somewhat romanticized? This talk contextualizes the classes in the late nineteenth-century violin-playing craze, and locates them in the camp-wide educational culture that emerged from the prisoners to aid survival, averting boredom and encouraging mental stimulation. Their toleration by the administration, I argue, owed much to neo-Victorian views of education as a force for moral improvement, paternalism, and social control.
Majella Boland (University College Dublin)
Appointing an Inventor of the Nocturne John Field has long been considered the inventor of the nocturne. There are scholars, however, who demonstrate that Field’s contemporaries are equally worthy of this title, including Dussek and Hummel. Indeed, David Rowland and Nicholas Temperley have long questioned Field’s status as the inventor, while Jeffrey Kallberg explains the debilitating effect Field as the instigator has had on nocturne studies. Yet no scholar has questioned the manner in which Field acquired this status; a status that has not only become an obstacle in Field historiography but also in scholarship on nineteenthcentury music, in particular in London. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to identify the point at which Field was assigned the role of creator of the nocturne genre. The contemporary perceptions of Field and the nocturne will be briefly assessed, as well as their entries in the first edition of Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Consequently, the year that Field is likely to have acquired the status as inventor will be provided by me, while making clear the plethora of issues that underpin this appointment.
Bruno Bower (Royal College of Music)
‘A Daughter of the Gods, Divinely Tall’: Gender and Families in the Programme Notes on Beethoven at the Crystal Palace Saturday Concerts A striking feature of the early programme notes for the Crystal Palace Saturday Concerts is the personification of Beethoven’s symphonies and piano concertos. In a note for Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony from 29 April 1865, August Manns states that he hopes that the work will ‘become as great a favourite here as its eight lovely and majestic sisters already are’. Notes by George Grove developed this metaphor further, in particular those for the Fourth and Fifth Piano Concertos. A note from 23 February 1867 compared the latter work to the goddess Juno, and included lines from Tennyson’s A Dream of Fair Women. The personification also extended to the relationship between Beethoven’s works and those by other composers: a note from 9 March 1867 describes his symphonies as being ‘cousins’ to the Mozart and Haydn ‘families’. When Grove rewrote these notes in later years, he removed some (though not all) of the references to gender in favour of more neutral language. This paper will examine the implications of both the feminizing of Beethoven’s works and of the familial connections between them, demonstrating the insights that can be gained from close, critical readings of Victorian programme notes.
Johann Buis (Wheaton College, Illinois)
Scottish Heritage and the Sonic Imprint of Empire: Jamaica, the USA, and South Africa In his Enlightenment Abolished of 2007, Geoff Palmer highlights how the prosperity of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Britain was built in large measure on the labour of 18
black slaves in the Caribbean. Glasgow served a role in deriving significant benefit from Jamaica, memorialized in Kingston Bridge and Jamaica Street today. Delving into social uplift among descendants of the African slaves, this paper highlights the social-historical context of the Scottish heritage in nineteenth-century Jamaica. Using a single case study, I argue that Scottish heritage is the wellspring for musical and religious activity that would spill over from the late nineteenth century into the early twentieth century. This paper draws particular attention to the Scottish imprint in this nineteenth-century musical and religious practice, since I follow the case of Francis Macdonald Gow (n.d.) who was almost certainly born in Kingston, Jamaica, a man of Scottish and African descent. I end the presentation with a set of recordings from South Africa, directed by the son of Francis Macdonald Gow, in which two distinct performance disparities are captured on acetate recordings issued in London in 1930 and 1940.
Beth Pei-Fen Chen (independent scholar and pianist)
Clementi and the Completion of a Slur It has been an unsolved puzzle for performers how to round off slurred notes of some eighteenth- and nineteenth-century composers’ keyboard or piano works. Should there be a tiny articulatory silence after the last note of the slur? The School of Clementi’s pianism emphasized the importance of melodic line and legato touch. Clementi and some nineteenth-century composers, such as Cramer, however, still used the kind of slurs which obviously cut off their phrases or melodic lines, whilst they also applied many more long-cross-bar slurs over their melodic lines or phrases in their works than Mozart and many other eighteenth-century composers did in their works. Could it be that the practice of these slurs was different amongst contemporaries as well as across different periods? Or might there be some similarity of practice in these slurs between Mozart and other nineteenth-century composers such as Clementi, his students, and the later composers who might be influenced by the line of Clementi’s approach? Whilst the popularity of eighteenth-century performance practice research has encouraged some modern players to be aware of this slurring issue for eighteenthcentury composers’ works, this paper intends to discuss it in approaches to Clementi and other nineteenth-century composers’ slurring notations.
Martin V. Clarke (Open University)
Sir Frederick Bridge and the Methodist Hymn Book (1904) The appointment of Sir Frederick Bridge as Musical Editor of the Methodist Hymn Book (1904) was a significant coup for the Wesleyan Methodist Connexion. As Organist of Westminster Abbey and Gresham Professor of Music, Bridge was a prominent and respected representative of a musical establishment with which Methodism, even in 19
its most formal Wesleyan guise, was not typically associated. The hymnal’s preface and minutes of the editorial committee’s meetings reflect the deference he was accorded, and his influence over the musical content of the hymnal is clear. It contained over 90 new tunes, the vast majority of which were composed by fellow luminaries including Stanford, Parry, several cathedral organists, and professors at music colleges. This paper contends that despite the musical prestige Bridge brought to the hymnal, his editorial influence resulted in a volume that was not an accurate or effective representation of Methodist identity. This will be demonstrated through comparison of the new tunes and the appendix of ‘Old Methodist Tunes’, and the evidence of later hymnals. Finally, the paper will offer some reflection on the implications of the relationship between text and music in expressing religious and cultural identity through hymnody.
Adèle Commins (Dundalk Institute of Technology)
Dry Irish Dances? An Examination of the Stanford and Grainger Four Irish Dances The Irish-born composer Charles Villiers Stanford has received both acclaim and criticism for his use of Irish folksongs in his compositions and for his role in publishing collections of Irish folksongs, principally his work on The Complete Collection of Irish Music as noted by George Petrie and edited from the original manuscripts by Stanford. While many writers have focused on Stanford’s integration of Irish folksongs in his symphonic works, for example The ‘Irish’ Symphony and his six Irish Rhapsodies, his Four Irish Dances, Op.89, remain largely neglected. Originally completed in November 1903 for solo piano, the dances were also arranged by Stanford for violin and piano and orchestra. Additionally, the Australian pianist and composer Percy Grainger also made an arrangement of Stanford’s piano arrangement for solo piano. Notwithstanding performances of the orchestral version at Buckingham Palace in 1904, and Bournemouth and London in 1905, it was Grainger’s arrangement that received greatest acclaim. Grainger’s decision to complete an arrangement of the works is not totally surprising considering the friendship that had developed between the two men in the first decade of the twentieth century. Based on tunes selected from The Complete Petrie Collection of Ancient Irish Music, the piano arrangements by both Stanford and Grainger provide an interesting example of two different approaches to setting the tunes for the same instrument. Both composers display examples of their inventiveness and compositional style with Grainger demonstrating a more virtuosic idiom in his writing. This paper aims to consider the reception of the works and critically examine the approaches undertaken by the two composers in their respective arrangements of the tunes from the Petrie Collection. Considering the writings on Stanford’s use of Irish folk tunes in his other compositions, it is important to reflect upon his approach in one of his neglected works. 20
Jeff S. Dailey (Five Towns College, Dix Hills, USA)
British Identity in Utopia, Limited Utopia, Limited, or the Flowers of Progress was the penultimate collaboration between Arthur Sullivan and William Gilbert. Not as well known as the works that preceded it, it explores British institutions in a foreign setting. Utopia, a kingdom in the South Pacific, seeks to modernize by adopting British ways. This premise gave Gilbert the opportunity to satirize British government and business policies by breaking them down into their simplest units and presenting them in a foreign setting. The large-scale humour comes from seeing Pacific islanders attempting to become English. However, there is a violently satirical underpinning to what is happening, and that is what my paper will explore. Gilbert lambastes British government policies from the time, as well as contemporary business practices. Sullivan’s music also satirically comments on British society. As my paper will show, the composer makes use of older musical forms and quotes from his own works to comment on the changes in society. Much of the subtext of Utopia, Limited has been overshadowed by the love story in the plot, which Gilbert expanded during its creation to accommodate his protégé, Nancy McIntosh. It is necessary to look beyond the interpersonal relations in the story, and to examine the underlying messages about capitalism and democracy.
Kenneth DeLong (University of Calgary)
Tennyson’s and Sullivan’s Song Cycle, The Windows Although W.S. Gilbert was the most important of Sullivan’s collaborators, he was by no means the only one. In 1867 Sullivan met Tennyson, and over the course of a long friendship, the two men collaborated on a number of artistic projects, the most important being their first: a cycle of eleven songs entitled The Windows; or the Songs of the Wrens (1871). Based upon the memoirs of the various people involved in the project and upon documents in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, this paper outlines the circumstances surrounding the creation of The Windows and discusses its relationship to art song composition in England at the time. Tennyson’s poems are shown to be poetic parodies, written intentionally in a ‘naïve’ manner similar to the early Romantic poetry of Wilhelm Müller and Heinrich Heine, and intended from the outset to be set to music. The musical settings by Sullivan, composed immediately following his 1867 trip with George Grove, derive from Schubert’s settings of Müller. In matters of overall structure, the cycle is shown to derive from Beethoven’s An die ferne Geliebte—specifically suggested by Grove as an appropriate model for the project. All these elements are fused with Sullivan’s own Victorian sensibility to create a work with its own definite character. Having few models within contemporary English song to serve as a basis for his work, Sullivan turned instead to Schubert, and attempted to duplicate his approach to song composition as the means through which to create an artistically significant song cycle 21
in English. Although The Windows did not have the artistic impact Sullivan had hoped for, it did mark the path later English song was to take in the efflorescence of English song in the later Victorian period. The paper will include an analytical discussion of selected songs from the cycle and will be accompanied by musical examples.
Fiona M. Donaldson (University of Edinburgh)
The ‘Historical Concert’ according to Friedrich Niecks (1845–1924) The German musicologist Frederick Niecks was born in Dusseldorf and came to live in Scotland in the late 1860s. In 1891 he was appointed Reid Professor of the Theory of Music at the University of Edinburgh and the first Dean of the new Faculty of Music in 1893/94. One of the duties of the Reid Professor is to organize, in February each year, an annual concert in memory of General Reid, founder of the Chair of Music. From 1841 this occasion had been marked by mixed format orchestral/solo concerts, but Niecks elected to include this event in an annual series of historical chamber concerts during the academic year in support of his lecture programme. The interest in the performance of music from earlier times was gaining in popularity and Niecks was concerned that often such concert programmes were put together in the random style of an ‘old curiosity shop’ and without sufficient consideration for the music and the listeners. This paper will consider the strategies employed by Niecks in the structure and programming of his historical concerts at Edinburgh from 1892 to 1914, and his views on performance etiquette and practice.
Therese Ellsworth (Washington DC)
Kate Loder (1825–1904), Performer, Teacher, Composer: ‘A Powerful Influence on the Art of her Time’ The many accomplished members of the Loder family included both male and female musicians. Best known among the women was Kate Loder. Her training at the Royal Academy of Music prepared her for a career as a piano soloist, composer, and teacher. Loder performed at leading concert series in London and in the provinces until retiring from public appearances shortly after her marriage in 1851. But she continued to teach (piano, harmony, and composition) and to compose until late in the century. An investigation of her output has revealed approximately forty works. Apart from a student opera, they comprise instrumental and vocal pieces for one to four performers. Instrumental genres predominate, chiefly for piano. Loder maintained a wide circle of distinguished colleagues. Her correspondence with Clara Schumann, for example, indicates the two enjoyed a longstanding personal and professional association. The entry on her in Grove’s Dictionary (1906) reports: ‘She was the kindest friend to young artists of all kinds, and was a powerful influence on the art of her time.’
Lewis Foreman (University of Birmingham)
Bugle Blasts in the Transvaal: Ladysmith, Pretoria, and Mafeking in Sheet Music The images and sentiments expressed in popular sheet music at the time of the Boer War are the climax of a heroic or patriotic representation of conflict in the British Empire overseas. This paper traces the history in the second half of the nineteenth century of the illustrated popular sheet music that celebrated British Empire military engagements. With the development of illustrated covers to popular music after the widespread acceptance of chromolithographic colour printing in the 1850s, the subject of the Empire and the British Army on campaign found a popular market. The final occasion when such an approach was acceptable came during the Boer War, for on the outbreak of the First World War a dozen years on, such imagery and sentiments were soon found to be outmoded in the face of a bloody reality. The popular-song repertoire documented the change from jingoistic and unrealistic images of war to the harsh reality, and the change of mood from upbeat patriotism to resignation and sardonic fatalism. This paper explores examples of the music thus produced in the nineteenth century, and the imagery associated with it, with special reference to the Boer War.
Malgorzata Gamrat (University of Warsaw)
Songs from the Published Writings of Alfred Tennyson: The Case of Franz Liszt’s Only English-Language Song In 1879 Liszt set to music a text written by Alfred Tennyson, Go not happy day, which is the only English-language song in his vocal music. This was a part of an order for a poetico-musical project that was a volume, edited in 1880 by W.G. Cusins, and dedicated ‘to her most gracious Majesty the Queen’. The thirty-five songs out of the forty-five printed in this volume ‘are new and original works, composed expressly for this volume’, as the editor states in the preface. In Liszt’s vocal music we only find one case when the composer made to order a song for a planned publication. The fact that Liszt used the language he did not speak is interesting. He only read in English and we know few lines written by him in this language. In my paper I will show how Liszt understood and interpreted Tennyson’s poetry using the means typical for nineteenth-century German Lied, operatic arias, and middle-age music. For the above-mentioned reasons, the song Go not happy day is extraordinary in Franz Liszt’s vocal music.
Karl Traugott Goldbach (Spohr Museum, Kassel)
‘During a Conversation we had about English National Songs’: Louis Spohr’s Variations on Irish Melodies in Context When Spohr gave the last concert of his 1820 concert tour to London on 8 June he premiered his ‘Irish Melodies, with Variations for the Violin (composed expressely for this occasion)’. The variations are the topic of this paper, which will be divided into two sections. 1.Obviously this work was intended as homage to his host country. But why did Spohr compose variations not on English but on Irish melodies? According to his letters from London, his Autobiography, and additional sources, it seems that Spohr believed that the London audience would prefer Irish over English melodies: while it was popular to include Irish songs in contemporary compositions Spohr was astonished by the lack of interest of the audience in glees. 2.Spohr took the themes for his compositions from Volume 7 of John Stevenson’s and Thomas Moore’s Selection of Irish Melodies. This section of the paper will examine the way Spohr arranged the Irish themes in his own composition (a kind of a miniature concerto for violin and orchestra in three movements) and incorporated them into his personal style.
Rosemary Golding (Open University)
The Union of Graduates in Music: Protecting the Public, Promoting Professionalism The Union of Graduates in Music was one of a number of societies set up in the late nineteenth century to seek professional accreditation and protection for musicians. The Union itself was founded by committee formed to defend music degrees from universities of the British Isles against competition from abroad; specifically the degrees offered by the Trinity College in Toronto. I begin by examining the foundation of the Union, its aims, and the rhetoric used to clarify its position. In the context of trade unionization, members were keen to remain distinct from working-class initiatives and emphasized the public benefits of regulating the profession of music. The early Union drew on debates over the role and content of music degrees and the status of the music profession, in particular with reference to other ‘higher’ and intellectual professions. I explore the early activities of the Union, its work in exposing ‘bogus’ degrees, and the developing sense of professional identity and purpose. Finally, I consider the Union’s proposals for a register of teachers, its collaboration with the Royal Society of Musicians and Incorporated Society of Musicians, and the resulting debate over accreditation for a new sector of the profession.
Lorraine Granger-Brown (University of Melbourne)
Australia’s Female Musicians: Colonial Poor Relations? Between 1890 and 1915 more than 300 women left Australia to pursue further music study overseas. London, as the heart of the Empire, was the predominant city of choice with 73 women taking up places at one of the London music colleges; 22 with scholarships; 60% of which were awarded by the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music (ABRSM). Did these women meet the Empire’s required musical standards or were the newly founded ABRSM Exhibitions in Australasia awarded for less than distinguished performance? Early reports suggest that amidst the chaos of their introduction in 1897 the focus was about pass rates as opposed to musical excellence. In the words of one examiner in 1928: ‘No musician should go to Australia except for health’s sake’ (Maurice Besly, ‘Fresh Air and Variations’, Sackbut 8 (April 1928), p.287). This paper identifies the Associated Board Australian female scholarship holders and demonstrates that contrary to what one might expect from the early reports the majority achieved considerable success in the competitive musical environment of London.
Makiko Hayasaka (University of Bristol)
The Sacred Sounds of Watering Places: Organ Recitals at Victorian Aquariums Victorian aquariums were multi-amusement sites where marine exhibits were combined with various forms of entertainment, and music was frequently featured as an effective means to both amuse and enlighten visitors. However, it is little known that some aquariums even housed decent pipe organs. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the curious practice of organ recitals in aquariums, taking particular note of the Westminster Royal Aquarium and the Brighton Aquarium, and to argue for its peculiar function in the building. Although it is unclear why the authorities decided to install organs, through an examination of aquarium programmes it can be assumed that there was the expectation that the religious connotations of the organ would foster a refined atmosphere in these institutions. A unique trait of aquarium organ recitals was the regular sounds of the waltz. While traditionally regarded as unsuitable for the organ, Waldteufel’s waltzes were common items in the programmes of the Brighton Aquarium, which suggests that aquarium organ recitals catered to the popular taste, more so than other venues. This may have been a hint of a new cultural phase of the organ music scene that emerged in the early twentieth century, in which waltzes played on cinema organs spread throughout the nation.
Peter Horton (Royal College of Music)
From Wesley to Best: English Organ Composition in the Early Victorian Era In the years between c.1830 and c.1860 the English organ underwent a fundamental change as organ designers and builders increasingly abandoned three defining features of the native tradition of organ building—a rudimentary (or non-existent) pedal organ, ‘long compass’ manuals (and pedals), and unequal temperament. Instead they adopted Continental practice, employing the ‘C’ compass for both manuals and pedals, treating the pedals as an indispensable part of the instrument, and tuning their instruments to equal temperament. At the same time a new generation of composers emerged, whose members systematically expected organists to possess mastery of the pedals and who, in many cases building on the example of Bach (and later of Mendelssohn), set in train the process that led to the late nineteenth-century flowering of native organ music. Starting with the work of S.S. Wesley, an idiosyncratic figure who looked both forward and backwards, this paper will explore the little-known repertoire of this period by such composers as W.T. Best, Edmund Chipp, Henry Smart, C.E. Stephens, Elizabeth Stirling, and Thomas Attwood Walmisley. It will take particular note of the forms used, the ‘sacred’ and ‘secular’ divide, and the potential for English composers to have been influenced by their Continental contemporaries and vice versa. Are the brief melodic similarities between Wesley’s Andante in F and Widor’s famous Toccata purely coincidental?
Jocelyn Howell (City University London and the Horniman Museum) (Session 4b) Demand and Supply: Wind Instruments for Britain and the Empire The social and economic changes in Britain during the nineteenth century led to a growth in popularity of concert-going and amateur music making. Whilst orchestras accounted for only a small proportion of brass and woodwind players, large numbers were required for brass and military bands. These were thriving owing to unparalleled civilian enthusiasm for contesting bands and the foundation of the Royal School of Military Music at Kneller Hall, which was responsible for raising the standards of regimental bands. Consequently, there was a great demand for instruments both in Britain and, as Britain rose as a colonial power, throughout the British Empire. This paper, by evaluating contemporary accounts and illustrations from manufacturers’ catalogues, discusses how what was essentially a craft industry operating from small workshops grew into a fully developed factory industry during the second half of the long nineteenth century.
Rachel Johnson (Royal Northern College of Music)
Musical Entrepreneurship in Early Victorian Manchester Musical life in early Victorian Manchester displays a complex network of philanthropists, entrepreneurs, and enthusiasts, with the same relatively small core of personnel frequently recurring in subscription lists, on committees, and as performers. This paper will trace the careers of two musical entrepreneurs: Richard Hoffman Andrews and David Ward Banks. Following the paths and connections of these protagonists sheds light on the practicalities of their network and its relationship with wider social and cultural structures in the newly industrialized city. Andrews and Banks were particularly active in the period 1830–1860, working variously as performers, teachers, lecturers, and organizers of concerts. Banks found success as an oratorio conductor, while Andrews also ran a successful music shop and a publishing business, composed a quantity of music for voice and piano, and founded a music circulating library. They developed and exploited new opportunities for musical employment wherever they could, working hard to expand and educate their audiences, as demonstrated by Andrews lecturing on ‘Music as an Art and a Science’ to the city’s elite at the Royal Manchester Institution while also providing elementary vocal instruction at the Mechanics’ Institution. Their efforts brought them into contact, and sometimes conflict, with many of the leading institutions and individuals of Manchester’s musical and civic life.
Erin Johnson-Hill (Yale University)
Mobilizing to Song: School Music Education and the Masculinization of the Victorian Working-Class Child The Preface to the popular Gill’s Physical Exercises for Use in Schools, with Musical Accompaniments (1881) laments that ‘little, if anything, has been done with regard to the Education of the body, as far as Elementary Schools are concerned’, even though ‘Physical training is, in fact, of as much importance as intellectual culture; [and so] the two should therefore move hand in hand’. Such a statement marks a common thread linking the use of music in Victorian schools to physical education, particularly if the songs used carried undertones of racial supremacy and imperial soldiering. Thus, the musical exercises contained within these ‘Drills’ can be examined as late-Victorian constructions of choreographed song as a tool for the training of the model British citizen. Within an imperial context, moreover, the Victorian child’s musically mobilized body would then later defend Britain’s Empire during the Boer Wars. Through a wide array of primary source material from nineteenth-century Britain and South Africa, this paper proposes that the moment at which British school singing first becomes a ‘masculine’ activity is precisely the juncture at which music becomes interlinked with the notion of industrialized and imperial re-enactment.
Marie Kent (London Metropolitan University)
Musical Scots Abroad: The Role of the ‘Invisible’ Scot in England’s MidVictorian Piano Industry A study of the 1881 censuses of England and Scotland has revealed a ‘snapshot’ of the piano industry workforce at that time. More than 6,500 people worked as makers, tuners, dealers, and suppliers to the trade; at least 6,462 in England, and 262 in Scotland. These figures are almost certainly understated (workers who did not describe their occupation using the word piano or pianoforte have yet to be discovered), but they point to some startling discoveries with regard to the Scottish workforce. First, more than one third of Scotland’s piano-industry workforce was working for the industry in England; and second, Scottish nationals provided the greatest migrant labour to the English piano industry, above 30 other countries. So what was the appeal of the English industry to Scottish workers at that time? And how many of the English migrated to work in Scotland? Census statistics and contemporary sources reveal some occasionally curious facts.
Amalya Lehmann (University of California, Berkeley)
‘The House was Kept in Continual Laughter’: Understanding Rossinian Humour in London, 1818–1830 That Rossini’s music elicits laughter has typically been treated as self-evident, thanks to the popularity of works like Il barbiere di Siviglia and Rossini’s historical identity as a musical comedian. But how was the humour of these works experienced by Rossini’s original audiences, before this expectation was established? London offers an intriguing case: Rossini’s operas arrived in 1818, and their reception between 1818 and 1830 was ambivalent, not least by comparison with Mozart’s comic operas, which premiered shortly before. The different roles played by plot, acting, and musical content in the comic experience of these works are revealed in critics’ explicit and implicit responses in their reviews of Rossini’s opere buffe in London. While contemporary Continental critics ascribed humour to Rossini’s music, their London counterparts insisted on plot or characterization as the engine of laughter, regardless of the language of the production. The critical reception reflects how middle-class London of the 1820s was engaged in defining, and rejecting, low-class humour. These results support historians who argue that this period marks a change in British humour, from the lewd and satirical taste of the late Georgian period to the well-mannered and more genteel style that would characterize the Victorian age.
John Ling (Royal Holloway)
Who was the ‘English Beckmesser’? Parry’s cantata Scenes from Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound, first performed at the Three Choirs Festival at Gloucester in 1880, came to be regarded by a number of critics as a harbinger of the so-called ‘English Musical Renaissance’. However, the critical reception of the work when it first appeared was largely negative. Looking back to this premiere, the music historian W.H. Hadow attributed the critics’ failure to appreciate the beauties of the work to the dominating influence of an ‘English Beckmesser’, whose condemnation set the tone for other critics to follow. In this paper I try to identify this person, drawing on the work of scholars who have penetrated the anonymity that was a common practice in press criticism at the time. I shall sift the evidence offered by the reviews themselves and by the opinions expressed by the reviewers on other occasions. I shall also draw on memoirs and other similar sources.
Alexander McGrattan (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland)
Musical Education and Ensemble Performance on Industrial Training Ships during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century During the second half of the nineteenth century, industrial schools were established in towns and cities across Britain, providing a basic education and technical training for children who were destitute or deemed to be at risk of drifting into a life of crime. Many industrial schools, and related institutions catering for disadvantaged children, maintained a brass or military-style band, and some also supported a more diverse range of ensembles. In response to the need for skilled mariners for the rapidly expanding Royal and Merchant Navies, industrial training ships were established around the coast of Britain. The criteria for entry to the training ships mirrored that for industrial schools, and like their land-based counterparts they typically maintained a brass or military band, with some also supporting other forms of ensemble performance. This paper focuses on the musical activities on Wellesley Training Ship on the Tyne, and, to a lesser extent, the Cumberland on the Clyde, and the Mars on the Tay. It considers the careers of some of the instructors and the evidence relating to their teaching methods, the place of music in the ships’ educational programmes, and, more generally, the relationship between juvenile bands and other spheres of amateur music making.
Ian Maxwell (University of Durham)
The Chamber Music Clubs of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge In the archives of the libraries of both Oxford and Cambridge Universities is a treasure trove of material, documenting the activities over more than one hundred years of the student Chamber Music Clubs in the two universities. There are membership lists, recital and concert programmes, accounts, day-to-day business records, minutes of 29
committee meetings, and library catalogues. The half dozen or so such clubs, including the London-based Oxford & Cambridge Musical Club, the Oxford Ladies' Musical Society and the Oxford Wartime Musical Club, all had a similar main purpose—to encourage and facilitate the playing of chamber music. The clubs were both educational and recreational—chamber music was studied and played, but equally as important were the social aspects of each club. The data that can be obtained from these records provides an insight into the student activities of many musicians and composers that later became eminent. Evidence for previously unknown associations and friendships, records of earlier first performances and hitherto unsuspected musical accomplishments can be found. Beginning with the Cambridge University Musical Society in 1843 and the Oxford University Musical Society in 1867, chamber music making became an integral part of University life from the middle of the nineteenth century. The names of those undergraduates who were members comprise a ‘Who’s Who’ of British Music—such as R.R. Terry, W.W. Cobbett, H. Walford Davies, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Patrick Hadley, and countless others. This paper introduces the common history of these clubs and presents the preliminary results of how an extensive examination of these archives is uncovering a previously little known aspect of music making in Britain and is gradually rewriting a part of twentieth-century British music history. Additionally, the role of the Oxford & Cambridge Musical Club in London musical life of the 1920s is scrutinized and its contribution to the creation of a new musical genre—the ‘English Fantasy’—is described.
‘It’s a Long Way to Tipperary …’ and Tennessee: Edwardian Ladies, Dominion Tommies, and Wartime Spaces of Healing in England, 1914–1918 During the First World War, many soldiers from throughout the British Empire were sent to England first to train, then in many cases after time at the war front, to recover from wounds. For Canadians and Australians, such healing often took place alongside English Tommies in municipal buildings and other unlikely places throughout England, such as country stately homes. At the forefront of activities in which soldiers engaged to occupy time, boost morale, and foster healing while convalescing was music. Often this music in hospitals was organized and led by upper-class women eager to do their ‘bit for King and country’. While Tommies—English and dominion alike—were certainly accustomed to singing and listening to musical performances at the front, especially due to the efforts of the YMCA, the raucous musical world they brought with them was new to the Edwardian country house and upper-class ladies’ soirees. Associated with British urban music halls and low-brow American culture—all music commonly used in YMCA-led performances at the war fronts—such bawdry songs were not the sentimental parlour-room ballads and nineteenth-century opera excerpts Edwardian ladies were used to playing.
This paper highlights the collision of these musical worlds of the trench and country house during the First World War in spaces of healing on the English home front. Drawing on country house sheet-music collections, soldiers and women’s correspondence and life writing, and newspapers of army battalions and Red Cross hospitals, this paper demonstrates the transnational and trans-class musical exchange of British and dominion Tommies with lady philanthropists disrupted the elite pre-war musical world of the Edwardian upper class. Ultimately such exchanges brought on by this first modern, global war established new and unlikely musical networks within the Commonwealth—networks that complicated former boundaries of class, gender, and empire.
Kerry Murphy (Melbourne Conservatorium of Music, University of Melbourne) Thomas Quinlan’s ‘All-Red’ Tours
This paper explores the global cultural ramifications of English entrepreneur Thomas Quinlan’s (1881–1951) travelling opera companies’ two extraordinary tours (1912, 1913) of ‘Greater Britain’, singing ‘in English to English speaking peoples all the time, never leaving the red portions of the geographical map’ (Sydney Morning Herald, 11 October 1913). Quinlan was on a civilizing mission, although not necessarily a colonizing civilizing mission, despite his all-red pathways. His travels had started in the English provinces. His desire to advance the general cause of grand opera among the English-speakers of the world included the English themselves and he hoped to ‘hop over’ to his ‘American cousins’ as well. His mission was also an educative one: ‘In my opinion the method to follow in bringing about artistic progress is not simply to give the people what they want. I claim it a duty to show the public what they should want’. This paper will survey briefly the main cities visited by Quinlan in South Africa, New Zealand, and Canada, but will focus chiefly on the Australian cities of Sydney and Melbourne. I explore the impact of Australia’s geographical isolation on the reception of Quinlan’s repertoire, and also the Australian reaction to Quinlan’s self-conscious promotion as an export from and for the British Empire.
Arnold Myers (Royal Conservatoire of Scotland)
Brass Instruments for Victorian Domestic Music The production of string and woodwind instruments for domestic music making was a thriving business well before the Victorian era, but the manufacture of brass instruments designed for use in the home appears to have begun with the ‘Cornutum or Drawing Room Cornopean’ for which the inventor, Joseph Pimlott Oates, registered a design in 1845. A more creative innovation was the 'Concert' or 'Vocal' horn launched by Rudall, Rose & Carte at the 1862 International Exhibition; this was followed by the better-known 'Ballad Horn' introduced by Boosey & Co in 1869; both these models were made until the late 1920s. 31
This paper discusses the special characteristics of these drawing-room instruments, and is based on a study of extant examples, manufacturers' archives, and other contemporary records, giving a fresh account of brasswinds designed for the domestic music market, and assessing their fitness for purpose and impact.
Jennifer Oates (Queens College, City University of New York)
‘A Revolt of the Provinces Against the Centre’: Provincialism, Identity, and Art Music in Edinburgh, 1900–1917 In Great Britain, the Great War encouraged the cultivation of national music and increased support for ending provincialism—both in terms of Britain looking to Continental Europe and in terms of other cities in Britain remaining culturally subordinate to London. This resulted in two issues that have only recently begun to be explored in modern scholarship: provincial musical cultures remaining largely dependent on London and burgeoning musical styles focused on aspects of Great Britain—Ireland, Scotland, the ‘Celtic North’, and the Tudor and pastoral music of England—rather than a unified British style. Art music in Scotland from 1900 to 1917 encapsulated the provincial nature of British musical culture, and it was home to some of the first efforts to explore national identity in British music and attempts to loosen London’s cultural grip on the provinces. Drawing upon primary resources (including concert programmes, reviews, and archival materials), an overview of Edinburgh’s musical life time will illustrate a shift from a provincial musical culture to one in which the number of concerts, recitals, and public lectures on music increased, as did interest in Scottish music and musicians.
Juan José Pastor (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain)
The Musical Reception of Cervantes in English Music, 1800–1900 In 2015 will be celebrated the Fourth Centenary of the Second Part of El ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha (Miguel de Cervantes, 1547–1616). This work has captivated the imaginations of countless artists, writers, composers, and film-makers with the exploits of its idealist hero Don Quixote and his trusty companion, Sancho Panza. From Eccles and Purcell in The Comical History of Don Quixote to Rushdie's novel The Moor's Last Sigh, from Salvador Dalí's sculpture Don Quixote to Mitch Leigh's Broadway musical Man of La Mancha, Cervantes' work has influenced all areas of the arts and humanities and continues to do so today. This paper will analyse, on the occasion of this 4 th centenary of Don Quixote and the imminent centenary of the writer’s death, some musical adaptations of Cervantes’ works in English during the nineteenth century, focusing both on opera and dramatic music. Some particular compositions will be highlighted, such as the overture Cervantes written by the Scottish composer Alexander Campbell Mackenzie in 1876, or the evolution and successive adaptations of The Bohemian Girl, composed by 32
Michael W. Balfe (1843). We will consider musical writing as another mode of literary reception—now that Literary Reception Theory has been accepted as a significant part of a Cognitive Theory of Culture—and we will examine the different ways of understanding the literary meanings and the different musical strategies disposed to represent a particular comprehension of Spanish culture on the English stage through Cervantes’ works.
Michael V. Pisani (Vassar College)
Music and Sensation on the English-Language Stage in the 1860s From the early years of the nineteenth century, so-called ‘illegitimate theatre’ began to incorporate spectacular effects—like the dynamite explosion in The Miller and His Men—but around 1860 the ‘sensation drama’ became a genre unto itself and remained important for the rest of the century (and beyond in the cinema). This paper explores the indispensable role music played in some famous and widely produced plays, especially those of Dion Boucicault—The Colleen Bawn (1860), Jeanie Deans, or the Heart of Midlothian (1860), and Arrah-na-Pogue (1865)—and by some of his many imitators. Boucicault opened the enormously popular character and action drama The Colleen Bawn in New York, London, Dublin, and Glasgow, all in the space of a few years (and with the same music). While the scripts reveal music’s important role in these dramas, theatre scholars long assumed this music to be lost. Little-bylittle, actual musical sources are being discovered to reveal the important—almost cinematic—role of music in both the conception and enactment of these dramas. Some of the most sustained music was necessary for the big ‘sensation scene’, where everybody—actors, stage crew, and orchestra—worked tightly together to bring the act to a breath-taking close.
Katherine K. Preston (The College of William and Mary)
An Edinburgh Soprano and English-Language Opera in America and Great Britain The Carl Rosa English Opera Company was the most successful vernacular-language troupe in Great Britain for almost a century. Few scholars, however, realize that it originated in the United States. In this paper I examine both the American roots of this well-known troupe and the significant influence of the Scottish soprano Euphrosyne Parepa on opera production for middle-class audiences at mid-century and afterwards. Parepa and Carl Rosa (violinist) were among the many artists who flocked to America after the Civil War ended. They made a brief and successful concert tour (1865), returned in 1866, and remained for several years. The couple (who married in 1867) noticed a renewed interest by American middle-class theatregoers in Englishlanguage opera and in response created the Parepa-Rosa English Opera Company, which toured widely. Its success contributed significantly to the emergence of an American English-opera movement that flourished for the rest of the century. The couple returned to England in 1872, intending to replicate their triumph at home, but 33
these plans ended when the soprano died suddenly. Rosa, now a conductor and impresario, reformed (and renamed) his troupe in 1874; its subsequent success insured Parepa’s long-term impact on vernacular opera for the popular stage in both America and Great Britain.
Christopher Price (Canterbury Christ Church University)
‘Not of Heroic Build’: The Literate Glee In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the English glee enjoyed enormous popularity. An important part of its appeal was undoubtedly literary: composers strove to make the glee a vehicle for the most profound expression covering a range of subject matter, embracing much more than its madrigalian heritage of love and death to include philosophy, patriotism and war, politics, and slapstick satire. The poets whose work composers set included the most illustrious of the age: Macpherson's 'Ossian', Robert Southey, Milton, and Spencer. This paper examines the relationship between music and text in the rich literature of the glee using musical examples from the beautifully preserved collection bequeathed to the city by the Canterbury Catch Club, some of which has been recorded by Chris Price and his fellow Lay Clerks in the Cathedral choir. Drawing on a range of examples, the paper will show how the glee transcended its own diminutive form at times, whilst failing to carry the weight of portentous texts at others. A special focus will be a beautiful two-volume collection of glees by that most literate musician John Wall Callcott.
Carmel Raz (Yale University)
Cognition in Scottish Common Sense Music Theory, 1770–1801 Scottish Common Sense music theory constitutes a distinct tradition of applying insights derived from the philosophy of Thomas Reid toward solving problems of harmony, rhythm, and tuning. Close reading of treatises by John Holden (1735–1771), Walter Young (1745–1814), John Gunn (1765–1824), and Thomas Robertson (died 1799), reveals many key intuitions commonly associated with contemporary music cognition. These include a two-second temporal limit on entrainment, subjective rhythmization—that is, our involuntary tendency to group beats into pairs—and the cognitive strategy of chunking, the grouping of larger numbers of items into a limited number of sets. These Common Sense music theorists are notable in assigning agency to the mind, the ear, and the faculties of memory and attention in determining perceived sounds and rhythms. Building theoretical systems that regarded harmony and rhythm as governed by an innate cognitive preference for ‘isochronous parcels’, they came to innovative conclusions about the nature of musical hearing. I focus on two thematic strands in their work: theories of harmony and divided attention, and theories of rhythm and chunking. The remarkable similarities between Scottish Common Sense music theories and principles espoused by contemporary music 34
cognition can serve to further our understanding of continuities and ruptures in conceptions of harmony and rhythm within Western Classical repertoires.
Brianna E. Robertson-Kirkland (University of Glasgow)
The Legacy of the ‘Coup de glotte’: The Case of John Braham (1774–1856) and Manuel Garcia II (1805–1906) Dr George C. Cathcart in his paper ‘Notes technical and descriptive on Braham’s singing’, which appears in the book The Singing of John Braham published in 1945, suggests that Braham made use of the coup de glotte, which was made famous by Manuel Garcia II in his New Treatise on the Art of Singing published in 1857. Cathcart goes on to suggest that Braham learned the technique through his vocal training with his castrato teacher Venanzio Rauzzini (1746–1810), who was schooled in the old Italian method of vocal tuition. However, the technique became controversial throughout the nineteenth century, with many teachers advocating that it should not be taught as standard vocal method. I will examine the treatises of Garcia II’s father, Manuel Patricio Rodríguez García, and Rauzzini to determine if there is evidence of the presence of the coup de glotte in early methods of instruction and will go on to examine Braham’s vocal technique, questioning if Cathcart’s observations are correct. I will then determine whether Garcia II advocated the technique in his treatise due to its use in the old Italian school or if he had developed the technique out of his scientific research on the singing voice.
Paul Rodmell (University of Birmingham)
Revisiting Edward Loder’s The Night Dancers In anticipation of the 150th anniversary of his death, several scholars are turning their attention to the life and career of Edward Loder, a composer who has now largely been confined to the ranks of the ‘also-rans’ of British musical history. A somewhat mercurial figure whose personal circumstances arguably prevented him from achieving his true potential, Loder was, nevertheless, well regarded in his prime, and placed on a par by many commentators with his contemporaries Balfe, Wallace, and Barnett. This paper revisits The Night Dancers, easily Loder’s most successful opera in his own lifetime. Premiered in London in 1846, the work enjoyed a substantial initial run and, unlike most British operas of the time, was the subject of some subsequent interest, most notably when it was revived by the Pyne-Harrison Company at Covent Garden in 1860 and 1861. Through an examination of the score and the work’s reception, a rounded picture emerges which, while it demonstrates that the opera was certainly not flawless, shows that Loder was a composer possessed of substantial talent, and capable of both subtlety and originality.
Eric Saylor (Drake University)
‘The Thing is not a Picture of Italy’: Finding the Pastoral in Elgar’s In the South If pastoralism may be taken to signify a set of stylistic precepts popular among certain English composers who came to artistic maturity after the First World War, then it is fair to say that Edward Elgar did not gravitate toward such practices in his own music. If, however, one treats the pastoral as a topical phenomenon, then Elgar approaches it in ways linked to long-standing musical and aesthetic tropes within nineteenthcentury European music more generally. This proclivity aligns with his persistent artistic desire to recapture a more innocent (if illusory) past, a phenomenon reflecting the literary conventions associated with the idyllic pastoral setting of Arcadia. However, Elgar’s Arcadia may be less a literal retreat than a symbolic haven capable of existing in many different places, times, and forms. His concert overture In the South (1904) offers a particularly complex example of such an approach, as the composer provided three distinct readings of the work between 1904 and 1907, each of which emphasizes a different aspect of a pastoral scene he encountered while on holiday in Italy. Taken together, they reveal a complex array of approaches to the pastoral that belie the topic’s usual Romantic associations, English or otherwise.
Stephen Siek (Wittenberg University)
Lecture-Recital: The Four Scottish Dances and Melodies, Op.15, of Tobias Matthay Although he is best remembered as Britain’s greatest piano teacher, Tobias Matthay (1858–1945) was also a serious composer, having studied at the Royal Academy with both Sterndale Bennett and Arthur Sullivan. In 1892, he became engaged to Jessie Kennedy of Edinburgh, the youngest sibling of the famed Kennedy Family Singers, and the following January he completed his four Scottish Dances and Melodies, Op.15, for solo piano. After they were married, they spent many summers at Edinburgh University performing for the evening ceilidhs organized by Jessie’s older sister Marjory Kennedy-Fraser, to whom these pieces are dedicated. Matthay offers free transcriptions of strathspeys such as ‘The Braes o’ Tullymet’, and reels such as ‘The Piper o’Dundee’, and once admitted that he was inspired to create these ‘concert transcriptions’ while awaiting a train at Berwick, ‘looking across the border in the moonlight and hearing the bagpipes in the distance’. But he also remembered that when he first performed them for a highly literate Edinburgh audience, they ‘nearly killed me for meddling with the sacred tunes!’ However, Matthay was gratified that the Kennedys enjoyed the set, appreciating its ‘Lisztian fervor’, and these miniatures bear some remarkable features that are well worth a modern examination.
Jula Szuster (Elder Conservatorium, University of Adelaide)
The Travels and Travails in Australia of George Loder (1816–1868) In July 1868, the English-born orchestral conductor, pianist, and composer George Loder died of tuberculosis in Adelaide, and was buried with his wife, the singer Emma Neville, who had died of typhoid fever just six months earlier. They had settled in Adelaide in mid 1866, where they gave concerts and taught music. Loder is best known as Anna Bishop’s accompanist on her Australian and New Zealand tours in the 1850s, and then as the conductor of William Lyster’s touring opera company from 1863 to 1866. Yet little is known of his extensive tours with Emma Neville throughout Australian and New Zealand. Like other travelling musicians of the time, Loder composed occasional pieces, songs, and dramatic works for his singing artists. Prior to his travels in Australia, Loder had been a successful orchestral and opera conductor in New York and San Francisco. He famously conducted the first American performance of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony in New York in 1846. The paper discusses Loder’s contribution to Australian musical life in the years 1856 to 1868, and examines in detail the impact that he made during his final two years in Adelaide.
Benedict Taylor (University of Edinburgh)
Seascape in the Mist: Lost in Mendelssohn’s Hebrides Mendelssohn’s Hebrides Overture (1829–35) is regularly considered the musical landscape (or seascape) painting par excellence. Scarcely another work has such an unerring capacity to suggest the wide horizons, delicate nuances of changing colour and light, and the wild freedom of the sea. Nevertheless, it is far from clear how nonrepresentational music can paint a landscape. This paper explores Mendelssohn’s archetypal example of the musical seascape in order to unravel these concerns. Travelling beyond the limits of mimesis and the visual for explaining Mendelssohn’s overture, I uncover his music’s implications for mythic-historical and personal memory (raising the notion of the work forming a ‘musical postcard’ of the composer’s travels in Scotland), synaesthesia, and the embodied subject. I suggest that this music is bodily, working on the audience through a mixture of senses and modes of apprehension that may not be entirely reduced to the passive cognition of sound. Ultimately I argue for a more ecomusicological understanding of Mendelssohn’s work as using its Scottish topos to embody a critical reading of a fragile human subjectivity within nature, an immersive projection of the wild, northern sublime that goes substantially beyond the standard use of Fingal’s Cave within Romantic poetry. Indeed, my paper might be said to take its bearings from Daniel Grimley’s recent assertion that what may be ‘commonly heard as exemplars of the picturesque, or as evocative local colour, images of nature in Nordic music invite more radical interpretations that pose questions about the relationship between humans, sound, and nature’. 37
Nicholas Temperley (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Aspiring to Greatness Against All the Odds: Edward James Loder (1809–1865) Of all the Loder musicians, Edward James had the most unrealistic goal for a provincial Englishman: he longed to excel in grand opera, a form wholly owned by foreign composers. Through his father's connections he was able to acquire a sound musical training in Germany, but poverty and poor health were constant barriers to his hopes. Among the hundreds of popular songs and piano pieces he was forced to produce to make a living there are only occasional traces of the genius he had within him. He managed to complete three serious operas for production. The most successful, The Night Dancers (1846), had the benefit of an above-average libretto and a good cast and orchestra. The one that has excited the most recent admiration, Raymond and Agnes (1855, 1859), had almost no chance of early success, and still awaits a fair evaluation through adequate public performance and recording. Meanwhile this paper attempts to define and draw attention to Loder's attainments, unique among British composers of the period, especially in the areas of melodic invention, orchestration, and the building of dramatic scenes.
Geoff Thomason (Royal Northern College of Music)
‘Heaven Blesses George’s Throne’: Handel Subverted, or Celebrating the Protestant Succession in Manchester’s Gentlemen’s Concerts The Gentlemen’s Concerts in Manchester lasted from the 1770s until 1920 and by the early nineteenth century had become the city’s main principal concert series, appealing to an exclusive body of wealthy subscribers. Several concerts given in the first part of the century mark significant royal occasions with performances of extracts from Handel’s oratorios, the texts of which are paraphrased to relate to the event being celebrated. Such events were also marked by the singing of the National Anthem, in some instances with a rewritten or augmented text. These textual alterations are examined as indicative of a concert-going elite whose political and religious values included the upholding of the Protestant Hanoverian monarchy and the celebration of Britain’s growing imperial ambition. The practice declined after the mid-century as the content of the concerts themselves changed, not least because of the influence Charles Hallé after he assumed the directorship of the concerts and the creation of his own Hallé Orchestra in 1858.
Brian C. Thompson (The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
Minstrels on the Road: The Uneasy Embrace of US Popular Culture in 1860s Britain The outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 caused an unprecedented exodus of stage performers from the US. Liverpool-born James Unsworth Jr and his partner, the New York native Eugene d’Ameli (known simply as Eugene), were among the first to leave. Having risen to minstrel-show stardom in the US, they arrived in the UK as 38
virtual unknowns, but within months were headlining at London’s Oxford and Canterbury music halls. After two years in the capital, they joined Christy’s Liverpoolbased company as the star attractions there and on tours throughout the British Isles. Building on the work of Featherstone, Pickering, and others, this paper will explore the place of minstrelsy in British culture through the performances of Unsworth and Eugene. The paper will examine how the duo adapted their act for audiences in London, Liverpool, and in Scotland, and focus on the reception of their performances in the press. These reviews provide insights into the diversity of the audiences they attracted and a seeming acceptance of the duo’s apparent homosexuality, but with slavery and economic hardship in the background, they also hint at the political tensions that then existed between the two countries.
Aidan J. Thomson (Queen’s University, Belfast)
Bax’s In Memoriam: Memory, Martyrdom, and Modalities of Irishness Composed in 1916, Bax’s orchestral piece In Memoriam, Pádraig Pearse commemorates the recently executed leader of the Easter Rising in Dublin, the event that eventually led to the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. Although the work was not performed in Bax’s lifetime—it received its premiere only in 1998— it is a significant milestone in its composer’s career, as I explain in this paper. Firstly, it is the most important musical manifestation of the nationalist-republican ideology that Bax acquired through his acquaintanceship with several leading members of the Irish Literary Revival. Secondly, along with his collection of poems, A Dublin Ballad (1918), it demonstrates Bax’s shift from a mythological to a realist conception of Irishness, a shift that to some extent parallels Yeats (though not Bax’s closest literary friend, George Russell). Thirdly, through his adoption of the trope of the nineteenth-century funeral march, particularly those by Liszt (Héroïde Funèbre), Wagner (Götterdämmerung), and Elgar (Grania and Diarmid), Bax mythologizes and martyrizes Pearse in ways that anticipate similar treatment by artists in other fields during the following decade. The piece should thus be considered (albeit necessarily retrospectively) an important musical construction of modern Irish identity.
Chloe Valenti (University of Cambridge)
Throats, Ears and Force-Pump Operas: ‘Sick’ Audiences and Singers in Nineteenth-Century Italian Opera In 1847 James William Davison wrote: ‘the disease of the Italian Opera has grown into a head, and Verdi is the fungus to which all the bad humours have flowed […] this fungus must be lopped off, and a wholesome plaster be applied […] but beware of applying it before the cancerous tumour, in which all the most virulent poisons of the disease are concentrated, be removed’. Davison’s use of medical language and imagery illustrates the increasing fascination with opera and health in the nineteenth century: the health of music itself, and that of the performers and listeners. 39
Critics claimed that ‘Verdi bombast’ split the ears of the audience, whose enthusiasm for such ‘sick’ works prompted the press to diagnose an alarming breakdown in British musical taste. Another complaint was ‘the wear and tear of the “Young Maestro’s” force-pump operas’, which highlighted the very real physical challenges of singing this music, as orchestras expanded and a more declamatory style prioritized vocal power over traditional bel canto techniques. This paper will examine how, at a time when scientific advances collided with superstition and dubious experimental medical practices, the treatment and training of one of the most delicate parts of the body fed into wider anxieties in the British press surrounding the health of the Italian opera genre.
Francesca Vella (University of Cambridge)
‘This Scene of Mingled Order and Confusion’: 1847 London and Jenny Lind When in 1869 Charles Lewis Gruneisen reviewed the circumstances leading to the establishment of London’s Royal Italian Opera in 1847, he appealed to notions of larger urban development: the expansion of the railway system, and the resulting centripetal forces produced by temporary migrations to the metropolis of an increasingly large and heterogeneous audience. Nor was London only a burgeoning destination for occasional visitors: it had also boomed in population. As several scholars have noted, the city’s mid-century identity vacillated between representations as a single entity and as a more fragmentary, hybrid socio-cultural landscape. This paper addresses some of these metropolitan tensions by focusing on accounts of Jenny Lind’s 1847 season at Her Majesty’s Theatre. Lind mania was often portrayed in totalizing, even epidemic terms (‘the spread of a renown over an entire population’); yet at the same time contemporary sources depict dystopian scenes of exclusion— distinctions and boundaries articulated by and on the threshold of the theatre’s portico. Discourse on Lind thus prompts us to explore the reconfiguration of space(s) spurred on by London’s urban and operatic developments, as well as the ambivalent perceptions to which such changes gave rise in the years leading up to the 1851 Great Exhibition.
Sarah Clemmens Waltz (University of the Pacific)
London Variation Sets and Building the Canon of Scottish Folksong The taste of London audiences for the Scottish folksong (that is, the Lowland Scots air) is widely known, and even occasionally credited for the foreign popularity of these tunes (which was shaped by many factors only indirectly related to London tastes). Nevertheless, it is clear that the taste for the Scottish folksong drove the creation of variation sets by members and successors of the London pianoforte school as well as by touring continental virtuosi. One setting often begat several others, leading to runaway popularity and effectively creating a popular canon. By contrast, early folksong collections on the continent (for example, Beethoven, Haydn) contain almost none of the most recognizable titles, although most existed in the parent collections 40
by Thomson, Napier, and Johnson. It is in London-published variation sets that tunes such as ‘Blue Bells of Scotland’, ‘Ye Banks and Braes’, ‘Comin’ thro the Rye’, and other highly over-exposed tunes gained currency over hundreds of others, passing into elementary instruction books and other perpetuating systems. Tunes spread by traveling virtuosi gained a shorter-lived continental popularity. This paper studies this formation of an Anglo-American ‘canon’ of Scottish folksong and contrasts it to the tunes spreading to the Continent, also contrasting their modes of dissemination.
Dorothea Weber (University of the Arts, Berlin)
The Symphonies of Stanford and Parry—Starting Point of a British Symphonic Tradition? Concerning the formation of a genuine tradition of British symphonies, usually the beginning of the twentieth century attracts most attention, which is connected with names as Edward Elgar, Ralph Vaughan Williams, or even later born composers including Arnold Bax or Arthur Bliss. More general views concur that Charles Villiers Stanford and Hubert Parry stand together at the beginning of a (reborn) British musical tradition (see Jeremy Dibble, ‘Parry, Stanford and Vaughan Williams: The Creation of Tradition’, in 1998). Regarding studies of symphonic repertoires, their symphonies are either discussed for their own sake (Brown 2008), or are excluded, as in the only monograph on the British Symphony (Schaarwächter 1995), where 1914 is chosen as starting point. There appears to be a gap between the periods covered. This paper aims to ask for the connections between Stanford, Parry, and their more prominent successors on a symphonic level. Being part of my dissertation project ‘British Symphonies between 1883 and 1918—Studies in Reception, Composition and Tradition’, the paper will consider both compositional aspects, institutional aspects as, for example, the impact of the professorships of Stanford and Parry, and their engagement for the movement that later was to be labelled the ‘English Musical Renaissance’.
Lance Whitehead (Independent Scholar, Edinburgh)
The House Band of the Marquis of Breadalbane c.1804–60 For 60 years or more, the Campbell family of Breadalbane maintained a private house band at Taymouth Castle, near Kenmore in the Highlands of Scotland. Consisting largely of working-class labourers drawn from the Breadalbane estate, boosted on occasion by specialist musicians from London, the band’s early nineteenth-century story is an important complement to that of the Cyfarthfa Brass Band in Merthyr Tydfil. Although the make-up of the band from its inception to the late 1830s is unclear, by the 1840s and 50s it is possible to identify the exact size, instrumentation, and even layout of the band, which by then was also entirely brasswind. Interestingly, a subset of the group also performed as a chamber band. Moreover, it is a story of social contrasts: while the Breadalbane family could afford to entertain Queen Victoria on a lavish scale, band members were poorly paid and suffered under an authoritarian 41
system and tyrannical bandmaster. Using Breadalbane family documents preserved at the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh, I will consider the mass resignations and expulsions alongside the introduction of new instruments, repertoire, and issues of performance practice.
Massimo Zicari (Scuola Universitaria di Musica-SUPSI)
Verdi and Wagner in Early Victorian London: The Viewpoint of the Musical World As early as 1844, Henry Fothergill Chorley, one of the most authoritative figures of Victorian journalism, called attention to two young composers, Giuseppe Verdi and Richard Wagner, whose recent success on the Continent could not escape the critic’s attention. However, while after the premiere of Ernani at Her Majesty’s Theatre in 1845 Verdi’s operas continued to make their regular appearance in London, it was not until 1870 that Wagner’s L’Olandese Dannato, alias Der fliegende Holländer, was given for the first time in the English capital city. Notwithstanding this disparity, a first glance at the reviews that appeared in the columns of the Musical World, shows the extent to which, between 1845 and 1855, both composers became object of severe critical scrutiny. By the mid-1850s Wagner’s figure was conceptualized on the basis of factors that only in part depended on the quality of his music; yet, the manner in which his controversial writings impinged on the Victorian musical milieu benefitted Verdi’s image, who came to be understood as a more reassuring popular composer.
Bennett Zon (University of Durham)
Victorian Recapitulationism and the Musical Hand Signs of Tonic Sol-fa By the time Darwin published The Origin of Species (1859) evolution had already become an established part of the Victorian intellectual landscape, as competitor theories vied for prominence. Widely popular amongst them is Ernst Haeckel’s theory of recapitulation, famously encapsulated in the idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny—the individual recapitulates the species. Recapitulation influenced music in many ways, not least in the way singing was taught by John Curwen, founder of the Tonic-Solfa movement. Founded in the 1840s under the influence of militant recapitulationist Friedrich Fröbel, Curwen created a pedagogy steeped in recapitulationary ideas. Foremost amongst these is Fröbel and Curwen’s belief that physical movement should embody intellectual activity. For Frobel this involved creating ‘gifts’ (playthings) to teach subjects through physical movement; for Curwen, using hand signs to teach the do re me of music. Curwen’s hand signs were special, because each one not only indicated an individual pitch, each pitch recapitulated a human characteristic. Thus, doh is strong, re hopeful, mi calm. This paper examines Curwen’s hand signs as emblematic of recapitulationism, exploring how each sign moved; how each physical movement embodied a particular characteristic; and how each characteristic informed and reflected man’s emotional response to music. 42
Social Events Wednesday 8 July – Ceilidh (Free to all delegates) Address: Sloan’s, 62 Argyll Arcade, 108 Argyle Street, Glasgow, G2 8BG www.sloansglasgow.com 20.00 – 00.00 Situated in the heart of Glasgow’s city centre, Sloans is one of the city's most stunning and impressive venues set over three decadent floors. Please Note: There will be no food provided at this event and delegates should eat before attending.
Thursday 9 July – Delegate Dinner (optional) Address: Hutchesons Bar and Brasserie, 158 Ingram Street, Glasgow, G1 1EJ www.hutchesonsglasgow.com 19.30 onwards This year’s conference dinner will take place at Hutchesons Bar and Brasserie, recently voted Scotland’s Best New Restaurant at the 2015 Scottish Variety Awards. Positioned prominently between the city centre and Merchant City, Hutchesons provides the best of Scottish food and drink with outstanding service and character from within its early nineteenth-century building. For the price of £25 per person, delegates will receive a three-course meal, including complimentary wine, and get to see this iconic Grade-A listed building up close.
General Information KABA Security Doors The Conservatoire operates a kaba security door system meaning that delegates will not be able to access corridors, teaching areas or working-group rooms without a security card. We will not be issuing delegates with security cards and instead will have the doors manned by our Front of House staff during the times that you would need access to them. Should you wish to access a room to set up or test your presentation outwith the times the rooms are listed in use on the programme, then you will be able to sign out a security card from the registration desk. Any security cards not returned will be invoiced to you at £10 per card. Catering Catering will be provided for all delegates. We have provided catering based on the dietary requirements entered at the point of booking. Please keep in mind that we can only cater based on the information you give us when you book. We understand that oversights are made and will be happy to help where we can. We would also delegates not to take a lunch prepared for special dietary requirements unless they have that dietary requirement, as you may be taking someone else’s specially ordered lunch. Lunch on Friday will be served in lunch bags to allow those delegates travelling on Friday afternoon to take lunch with them. Wi-Fi Access Delegates can access Wi-Fi during the conference by connecting to eduroam or _The Cloud. Eduroam is a world-wide roaming access service developed for research and education. More information can be found at the eduroam website. The Cloud can be accessed in public areas of the Conservatoire by selecting it from your wifi list and creating an account on http://www.thecloud.net. Local Information The Glasgow Taxi number is 0141 429 7070. There is also a taxi rank just across the road from the Conservatoire. In comparison with most cities, Glasgow taxis are generally inexpensive. ATM points M&S Glasgow Santander The Co-operative Food
172 Sauchiehall Street (Ground floor) – free 147–149 Sauchiehall Street – free 123 Sauchiehall Street – free
Something to eat outside… We do hope you will join us for the catering provided but we also know that some delegates prefer to get out at lunch and may wish to pick something up. Pret, Eat, Subway, Greggs, Café Nero, Costa and Starbucks are all located on Sauchiehall Street. Photocopying We regret to inform delegates that there will not be access to a photocopier during the conference. There is a copy shop nearby and we will be happy to point you in the right direction should you need anything. A few notes about our spaces Please note that there is limited seating in AGOS Foyer during lunch. Please feel free to take your lunch and sit on one of the many sofas’ you will see around the Alexander Gibson Opera School. There is also additional space directly beneath the foyer. We just ask that you bring your plate back the AGOS Foyer so our caterers can collect it from there.