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BAB IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
A. FINDINGS This research was conducted at Mtsn 3 Kota Banjarmasin located on Jl. Bakti No.4, RT 23/RW.04, Pemurus Dalam, Banjarmasin Selatan, Kota Banjarmasin. This chapter present the research findings and discussions in listening anxiety of ninth grade students. As stated before, there were three instruments that used to collect data, they are observation, interview, and documentary. It was collected based on the result of interview which has done outside classroom to students of IX B. The observation was conducted on August 8th 2016 until 29th 2017. By using first instrument, observation sheet, the researcher collect the data directly. Then the researcher conducted an interview to clarify to the participants what the researcher had discovered during the observation. Through interview, the researcher also wants to deepen and complete the data that has been collected from the observation. The researcher gathered the objects about nine students by teacher’s suggestion and they score of listening activity. In this chapter, the researcher analyzed the result of data through four steps based on case study analysis steps by Creswell. In the first step, the researcher found 14 symptoms of listening anxiety from the identified problems from pre-observation and many other researches that related with this research. However, during some observations the researcher diminished some symptoms based on founded in listening activity.
Based on the result of observation and interview, the researcher found several symptom and signs of students’ anxiety that mostly appear during listening activity, they are: Table 4.1 Symptom’s Listening Anxiety Symptoms
Ask to replay the audio several times, complained audio not clear, ask the teacher what the audio meant.
Lack of confidence with their answer
Be a sign of shyness, refuse the teacher instruction to answer, lowering the voice.
Doing one’s best to avoid listening
Doesn’t pay attention, ask to go to toilet for several times.
Mind goes blank
Day dreaming, getting confused.
Unable to remember what has been heard
Discuss with seatmate.
Restless, pale, look left right. Trembling, pale.
Thoughts becoming jumbled and confused
Fidgeting, doodling, looking at a watch, yawning.
Based the table 4.1, it showed that students feel anxious and show some symptom at several times. Students were mostly anxious in listening activities such test in listening, oral presentation in front of the class, being called on by the teacher
or waiting turn to answer. They also worried about right or not of their answer. After obtaining the result of observation and interview, the researcher found several signs of symptom’s anxiety. Then, in this step, the researcher found three component of anxiety and categorized all symptom to identify the dominant component that influenced student’s anxiety in listening. The first category is communication apprehension; in this category, the researcher related the symptoms with communication apprehension. The second is test anxiety; from the identified problems, there are several symptoms, which include in students’ in test anxiety. The last one is fear of negative evaluation; there are some symptoms that related to fear of negative evaluation. Table 4.2 Symptoms Categories No.
Fear of Symptoms
Lack of confidence with their answer during listening activity.
Doing one’s best to avoid listening.
Mind goes blank.
Unable to remember what has been heard.
Thoughts becoming jumbled and confused.
Clustered around the following three general categories: 1. Stressed, lack of confidence with their answer during listening activity, panic, feeling hot with cheeks burning or feeling cold and shaking associated with communication apprehension. 2. Stressed, doing one’s best to avoid listening, mind going blank, getting confused and unable to remember what has been heard, panic, thoughts becoming jumbled and confused associated with test anxiety. 3. Lack of confidence with their listening answer during listening activity, mind going blank, thoughts becoming jumbled and confused associated with fear of negative evaluation. Table 4.2 described students’ symptoms of listening anxiety. The researcher found that some symptoms related to component of anxiety and they were divided into three categories of component: The first component was communication apprehension. The four symptoms that included in this category show that indeed. In listening activity, some participants
showed they have anxious if they did oral presentation. As we know listening is an integral part of communication, and both listening and speaking are two interrelated skills that make communication possible. The findings, although moderately, indicated that listening apprehension is a part of communication apprehension, which can block the process of communication in foreign language and/or negatively influence the listening test scores. All the participants also stated that they were afraid and nervous that the teacher would catch them on the spot, or those they would give an incorrect answer or not pronounce the words correctly. The other times the participants showed, they had trouble to participate in small group during listening activity. Whereas the purpose of making the group was to facilitate students in doing the exercises during listening activity. However, in the group they have little control of the communicative situation and they knew their performance was constantly monitored. The participants thought they had difficulty in understanding others and making others students understood. Because of this, many participants are silent during listening activity. The second component is text anxiety, seven symptoms include in this category. Most students indicated that they have high anxiety in test situation during listening activity. In other hand test anxiety to be dominant component that students’ showed in listening activity. Many points make the test anxiety to be the highest component. The first is unclear audio, it is makes the sounds that students hear become more unfamiliar
and ambiguous the test tasks and formats. Others is test item, some students feel the first item of task is critical. The participants said in listening tests, if the first question is a difficult one, it triggers anxious that influences the following items. Most of the participants expect to understand the text word by word, and when they failed to follow the text in this way, they became frustrated and worried. They think that their failure to comprehend the text because they failed to understand a word or an important verb, while they just required main points from audio said. However if they are trained to listen for the gist and main points, much of their apprehension may be attenuated. Almost all of the participants in this study complained about the speed of text, while they listened to the questions in normal speed. It is, therefore, concluded that many anxious test sitters take normal speed as ‘fast’, and lag behind of the strings of words which strike their ears, and hence, feel tense. Their anxiety could even be compounded if they were not allotted a chance to listen once more. Anxious students were likely to experience their highest level of foreign language anxiety when they were performing tasks in which time was a factor. Listening tasks are among such tasks in which time is critical, and hence, the most remarkable room for anxiety to culminate. The third component was fear of negative evaluation. It is apprehension about others' evaluations, avoidance of evaluative situations, and the expectation that others would evaluate oneself negatively. Two of the nine students reported feeling anxious that those students who had been participate to answer some question during listening activity.
They perceived these students’ accents, vocabulary, and conversational skills to be far superior to their own; this made them feel quite nervous. The participants thought if they participating in listening activity, it would only make the appearance bad in font of other. When the students have perception as such, they tend to feel fear of any kind of evaluation since they feel intimidated. From the findings, it was found in some participants. This indicates that some of the participants’ are having problems in dealing with evaluation from others in class such as from peers and teacher. A possible explanation is that the students are worried about others’ perception towards their performance in listening activity. In certain situations, students tend to perceive themselves as less intelligent or smart as compared to the others in class. Therefore, they were most likely to feel scared and reluctant to get involved in any activities in class that has the potential to show how much they know about the language and their ability in listening activity. Another explanation for the high anxiety level is due to their anxious with the evaluation of teacher. Therefore, the students who have high anxiety level in fear of negative evaluation component are likely to become anxious and afraid of their language teacher’s reaction towards them. Some students felt very scared to face evaluation from language teachers since if they thought getting discrimination of treatment among them. The students felt more frustrated especially when they are being corrected even before they have the chance to properly formulate the answers. Hence, some might take it as an embarrassing moment. However, there might also be a possibility
that the comments given could be unsuitable to the students. Because the reason all participants’ should receive feedback in different ways, knowing each of their characters is also worth considering in the teaching process. From the three categories that are mentioned above, actually, the dominant component is test anxiety. This component truly plays a large role in students’ ability in listening activity. The analysis of relation between listening and test revealed that students were stressed by the vision of having to write a composition about what they had heard and answering questions during test in listening activity. True/false statements and fill in the blank sentences generated anxiety among all of participants. This may be explained by students’ unfamiliarity with open tasks, since this latter technique seems to prevail among listening tasks performed by students in English class. From the analysis above, the researcher could described a pattern about seven symptoms in test anxiety category; this pattern could be described as follows:
Thoughts becoming jumbled& confused
Mind goes blank
Doing one’s best to avoid listening
Unable to remember what has been heard
Based on the description of the pattern above, it could be explained that six symptoms related to test anxiety and these caused the emergence of listening anxiety of the students. Symptoms that initially rarely appear continue to develop into an anxious because too often, it makes the participants have low performance in test in listening class. The participants worried mostly about getting poor score and felt anxious about listening activity. It seems that apprehension connected with testing and assessment
does not disappear even at any levels of proficiency. Bearing this in mind, teachers should approach assessment during listening classes with caution, especially with students who showed symptoms. Eliminating the symptoms of anxiety and offering academic and personal support were found to reduce general anxiety levels and it might be hypothesized that they could also be applicable and efficient for them.
B. DISCUSSION Based on the identified problems, the researcher discussed the completely identified symptoms in this research entitled Students’ Listening anxiety (A Case Study at MTsN Kota 3 Banjarmasin). 1. Stressed All participants reported, they stressed during listening activity. However, the classroom learning was in the morning, in the sense that students have not burdened with other learning materials. However, stressed was inevitable, when doing observation; the researcher found they shows symptoms of anxiety like inappropriate posture (slouched, leaning back or swinging on a chair, leaning forward onto a table, and a constantly shifting posture). It occurred because they feel uncomfortable with the situation during listening activity. Basically participants’ who were paying attention tend to lean slightly towards the speaker or audio. Other students ask to wash their hand twice. It occurred 35 minutes after learning process they look pale and dizzy. All the problems was related
to component test anxiety and communication apprehension, because the researcher found them when listening test and oral presentation. In other hand some participants show stressed when teacher asked them to participate in listening activity. The Participants’ instead doing something else like bending their head or scribbling something. It also happened in-group discussions; participants who felt stress became passive and looked uncomfortable with the discussion and other participants. Moreover, during process of learning participants also complained a lot about audio, like asked teacher to replay audio, and the audio was played five times in each lesson, whereas for students junior high school like them the audio properly played only three times. They also said audio has unclear voice, although it has been played several times, the cause is the participants’ have many unfamiliarity words during listening activity, it is stated by them in the interview session. According to the researcher, the teachers should make the listening lesson a training session: let the students hear a passage several times in small sections with pauses or any other way that is helpful to them. Moreover, the teachers should be suggest students that thinking about something less stressful was useful. 2. Lack of confidence with their answer during listening activity During observation, it also found that students appeared to be anxious when teacher asked answer of listening activity in front of others. They lack of confidence with their answer of listening activity. The cause is more or less as described above. They are afraid that is heard wrong and impacts to their score.
Some of them lowered their voices or read faster to avoid the teacher correction. While several other were likely to avoid their teacher by pretended to be busy writing a note or read a book. Few even refuse the teacher’s instruction to practice their speaking skill in front of the class in an effort to avoid humiliation or embarrassment of their answer being called to speak. According to the researcher, regarding to this problem, teachers can introduce the topic with a short discussion; for example, the teachers could announce the title or say the first sentence and ask what they think it will be about. This arouses certain expectations and makes the students mentally prepared for the topic; it may also activate latent knowledge of vocabulary associated with the topic. 3. Doing one’s best to avoid listening Two participants showed they do not like listening activity, although at the time of the interview they said that listening is important. However as we know listening is so complicated skill, then they doing one’s best to avoid listening. It seems that in these situations students are not able to cope with the difficulties listening imposes and they cannot tolerate ambiguities in listening process. Many of the things they do as a refusal like continue to talk to their seatmate play with the other, doing something else that is not related to listening activity. However, once the teacher stops playing audio they will be busy looking for answers to their friends. The researcher also found they do not care about the task given and do not complete the answer, and it makes them get low score. Regarding this problem, the teachers should select material of appropriate interest level. Students perform better with material they want to listen to because they
enjoy it. Apart from catering for any specialist interests they may know about, the teachers should find the following generally useful: jokes, personal anecdotes, humaninterest stories, material containing some puzzle to be solved and serialized stories. 4. Mind goes blank Many students struggle with their mind goes blank when they are oral presentation, it is mean they lack of confidence during extended answer or presentation. When they maintain lower level of confidence shows, they do not have preparation for the listening activity and the higher level of confidence also delivers wrong message that mind do not need any preparation, suddenly mind adopted such wrong message and misbehave. When participants feel anxious, they fill their mind with thoughts about consequences of cannot extended their thoughts, make their teacher and peers understood what they said and the embarrassment it would cause of mind going blank. They overload their minds with distracting and useless thought. In-group activity, Students who suffer from this problem cannot usually participated with their group, blank out in situations that intimidate them. Some common examples are meeting new people, being put on the spot in a group, or talking to someone who are attractive or high-status, like talking with their teacher. However, in this case, it is not happening only at the time of oral presentation and group discussion, at the time of their test experience with mind goes blank. During
test researcher found participants goes day dreaming while audio play or becomes distracted rather than listening the audio. The researcher also found some participants doodling, snapping chewing gum, or candy. That is all make they cannot complete they answer or missed the information and asked the teacher to play the audio multiple times. The solution of this problem for the teachers should be increase class time for listening practice. There must be more class activities that focus especially on the listening skill. 5. Unable to remember what has been heard During listening activity, the researcher found participants getting confused and unable to remember what has been heard. They are concerned about missing the key words or misunderstanding the content. They assume that the might hear the “wrong” information. The highest load of concern related to the situation when participants are not familiar with the topic. They tend to feel surrendered when they realize that the topic is unknown for them and they lose their concentration to listen effectively. Moreover participants reported being anxious only because they are under test condition instead of listening activities where they do not have opportunity to replay the audio as much as they need. Similarly, in a condition where a question was read aloud and they are not able to rewind it, they also feel anxious. Such nervousness may be due to fact that they require processing the linguistic elements and remembering the audio simultaneously, which seems to be a demanding task for untrained listener.
It is inferred that for many learners who experience anxiety in listening tasks normal speed seems to be fast, they are not able to catch up with strings of words that strike their ears, and therefore they feel anxious. Another factor related to participants cannot unable to remember what has been heard during listening activity is they facing with the audio that are presented in accents which not familiar with them. Understanding the listening materials that are pronounced in the accent that they are not exposed with it frequently seems to be a hard task for them. It is an indication that authenticity genuinely has an impact listening anxiety. According to the researcher, the teachers should make input or materials comprehensible with familiar, meaningful topics and vocabulary. In other hand, the teachers guide the learners through the listening texts by focusing their attention on one thing at a time. 6. Panic Experience of panic attack was always personal. The researcher found common symptoms of panic in class, like sweating, discomfort, shaking hands, upset stomach, during observations. Three of participants show and reported, sometimes during listening activity they get all shaky, include hands and cannot thought straight. They feel start breathing heavily, dizzy, nausea, sweaty palms, and heart pounding. Sometimes they will even get cold chill, whereas the air in the classroom tends to cool because it was still morning. Generally, students get panic attack in the test situation and oral presentation. They get panic in the test and cannot concentrated from the beginning and until the end of the process listening. Moreover, they also got freeze when doing oral activity in front of class. In order to help students, the teachers should
use variety of materials or input incorporating games and other fun activities in the EFL classroom as the vehicle for listening activities. They are make class more comfortable. 7. Feeling cold and trembling This symptom occurred with some participants, it was found in some observation. Then when interview session, they report they feel it in some situation. Sometimes in listening test with a long conversation, they anxious feel anxious if cannot hearing the answer. However they more anxious when teacher ask them to convey their answer. In fact, they dreaded any presentation from the moment the teacher announced it, even they can answer completed. They voice would quiver and feel nervous and started trembling and shaking hands. Many symptoms of anxiety are often easy to hide, but trembling and shaking hand feel so obvious. They was terrified people would realize just how anxious they was, it was not nice feeling and it is just make their appearance becomes bad in front of their classmate. Therefore, the teachers should be more sensitive towards students’ feelings while giving instructions to do presentation since most of the students feel lack of confident and insecure while listening activity. So that the teachers should be strive to create a non-threatening learning environment conducive for the students. 8. Thoughts becoming jumbled and confused The influence of thought becoming jumbled and confused make participant hard to concentrate. They said it was attack their thoughts during listening test; they would start with the failing memory with audio said and their answer. Many factors that underlying occurs, such as when their classmate discuss during audio play, the
location of the participants class that is dealing with the school field. It directly interferes their concentration when they hear sounds that are not from audio. Problems from outside the school also affect their concentration. Some participants report they easy get a thought becoming jumbled and confused when they have problems outside the school, it is difficult to get them to concentrate. It seems that many things from the outside that affect and make their thought become jumbled and cannot follow the listening class well. That is all also occurred when participants doing oral presentation. It was occurred because unconducive situation, it must be a very overwhelming and irritating feeling for participants, and could resulted in losing track of concentration. According to the researcher, regarding to this problem, teachers should Try to create a comfortable and enjoyable environment in order to the students could be more focused during listening activity.